Always phrased as sharia law in the west, which in a funny way means law law. Since the English translation of sharia is law.
In real simple terms, sharia means a governing body of guidance on what and how to do certain things if a person submits, adheres, follows islam.
Sharia only applies to males and females, humans as well as jinns on a biological (human), in addition to spiritual level.
We are guided on how to behave towards others, animals, plant’s society, god. How and what to wear in front of others such as family friends, occasions. How to properly apply what god commands in our daily lives. What is good (halal) and what is bad (harram), or permissible (allowed) and impermissible (not allowed).
Sharia applies on how we fight , go to war, do business, how we court ( date) or prepare for marriage. How to be intimate ( have sex), or act with family. How to bring up children, be a good husband , wife or child.
Sharia applies on how we lead our lives according to god’s commands in general terms. following and applying sharia what is good for us and our souls.
Sharia is simply a test to prove our belief and submission to god. It is part of nature and so applies to nature, as islam is a natural construct of the universe and existance. Which connects everything together in alignment which speaks and applies to natural law.
Yes the laws in islam may at times sound barbaric, such as stoning, whipping, or chopping of the hand and crucifixion. How ever, when you think of the crimes committed what would you do? Some someone to prison ans have them act again when they come out?
Each punishment, has been decreed so to keep a lasting impression, a thief will think twice before stealing something valuable,
Since allah knows it is best it is he who sets the rules.
And (as for) the male thief and the female thief, cut off (from the wrist joint) their (right) hands as a recompense for that which they committed, a punishment by way of example from Allaah. And Allaah is All Powerful, All Wise” [al-Maa’idah 5:38]
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) cursed the thief because he is a corrupt element in society, and if he is left unpunished, his corruption will spread and infect the body of the ummah. He (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “May Allaah curse the thief who steals an egg and has his hand cut off, or steals a rope and has his hand cut off.” (al-Bukhaari, al-Hudood, 6285).
A cheating spouse creates a crack of trust, in the marriage, and would go to the extent of murder when it comes to cheating.