There are many types of prayers apart from the five obligatory ones.
The sunnah prayer which is optional to pray at any given time.
Istikhara/ decision prayer, which is specifically for making decision with the help of god.
Dhuha prayer prayed after sunrise but before dhuhur ( noon prayer).
Janaza/ funeral prayer
Journey/ safar prayer where you can mix two on one, where two prayer are cut in half to male four but are interconnected with the salaam. So you pray two and then two again.
Witr prayer ( one rakat to conclude tahajjud or taraweh prayer)
Tahajud which is a long night prayer. A connection of two rakat prayer
Taraweh which is a long prayer after isha. A connect of two rakat prayer